Work in progress... Just setting up outline.
The goal of this guide is to outline the process of converting a stock moped electrical system to a LED system.
A guide to safe and bright lights.
Pieces You Need that Your Moped Does Not Have
- Regulator / Rectifier - Not just a regulator, we will be converting the AC output of the magneto to DC for the LEDs. These can range the cheap $10 ones to the Trail Tech (7004-RR150) or higher. We will be using the Trail Tech (7004-RR150) in this guide.
- Headlight Lens - If you have a sealed headlight you will need to change to a replaceable bulb type, usually fits a 1156 BA15s bulb. If you have a changeable bulb lucky you.
- LEDs - You can find ones that fit in your current moped fixtures. Headlight bubs are usually a 1156 BA15s bulb. Taillights are usually a single 1157 BA15d bulb or two 63 BA15s bulbs. Check yours before you order.
- Wire - Lets face it, that wire is 30+ years old, and needs to be replaced. Our wire harness will be rebuilt in this guide, but you could reuse what you have.
Things to Think About Before You Begin
- Wiring in general - Now is the time if you want to update how your bikes switches and buttons work. Its also a good idea to simplify your wire loom. This guide will cover the process the making the simplest full featured harness. (Headlight, tail light, stop light, horn, light switch, kill switch)
- Is it worth it? - I would say every moped needs this treatment, but if your lights work now and are bright enough for night riding. Why change what works?
- Can I do this? - If you are unsure stop now and get help or take it to a shop.
- Are mopeds really what you want to spend your time on?
Preparing the Stator aka Under the Knife
- Remove the Magneto, also know as a Flywheel with a Flywheel_puller.
- Disconnect all the wires from the wire harness.
- Remove screws from the Stator_plate. Usually two or three of them.
- Remove 6v Lighting Coil (if equipped) and replace with 12v Lighting_Coil. The lighting coil will have one end attached to the metal core and the other to a wire that runs out to the wire harness. This wire is usually yellow in color. The Exciter_Coil is wired to the point and condenser.
- Pull the coil wire off of the core and scrap some of the wire enamel off the coil wire. Cut a fresh piece of wire long enough to meet the wire harness, strip the end and feed it up next to the coil wire.
- Solder it. Tin the coil and the wire ends first then heat them together.
- Cut the yellow wires to length, add some shrink tube. In this case we added female Quick_Disconnect terminals, you should add what ever you need to connect to your harness.
- Test and make sure it is working correctly. Get out a Digital_Multi_Meter and set it to the buzz setting or smallest resistance setting. (if you are using resistance, 0 to 10 ohm is short aka buzz, infinity is open) Check for continuity from one yellow wire to the other, your meter should buzz. Then check for continuity between one yellow wire and the metal core of the coil, your meter should NOT buzz.
Building / Updating the Harness
You will want to "float" your rectified DC output from the regulator/rectifier setup. This means that when you are powering devices off your DC system, you will have to create a negative/ground/return wire for each connection. You can no longer use the frame as a grounding point for the DC system as this could damage sensitive electronics (some LEDs have fancy circuits attached to them)
The Interesting Thing About Switches
This design requires N/C (normally closed) switches. That means the switches act as a short when pressed.
Batteries and Capacitors
You can add a battery or a capacitor, you need a return path to ground for ac in the dc output.
Buying LEDs aka when 12v is actually 13.8v
13.8 is what most auto and moto run on, 12v is nominal. The LEDs need to be able to handle this. If you are buying LEDs designed for automotive use the should be rated for up to 14v. 360 degree LEDs are ideal for headlight and tail light because the fill the lens to help project.
- Headlight - 400 lumens or more 360 degree
- Tail light - 100 lumens or less 360 degree
- Stop light - 100 lumens or less forward firing