1) there is a vacuum wave that travels along that path from the engine which pulls up fuel. It follows the same principle as when the exhaust port opens and a pressure wave is created which travels at the speed of sound. That wave is somewhat independent of the actual pocket of pressure which is the exhaust.
2) there is vacuum all along that path till the air filter
3) there is the Bernoulli effect on the jets
All three combine to pull up fuel through the jets but the farther the distance to the fuel, the less fuel is pulled up.