Chad's right. You only want it to put enough pressure on the start plate to allow the motor to kick over when you have the handle pulled in the whole way. It doesn't sound like you're out of adjustment by much if at all.
I can't see that all of the rubber pieces inside your casing were the bushing rings that align that start plate because they usually melt when there's an issue. I suppose if you clutch sat empty for a really long time they could have dried out and cracked apart.