New energy/Free Energy

I would like to do some 'trolling' to see what kind of information you guys have regarding energy, engines, and power.

I'm going to research the 'stirling' engine-- supposedly that has a lot of potential.

I love hearing about new technology and new forms/methods of extracting power. Free Energy, too, although that area is usually filled with more 'quacks' than true visionaries.

Is there a 'conspiracy' regarding fuel and hydrocarbons? I personally love plastic, so I can't knock the oil companies 100% as being an evil mega corp--

The Enron disaster-- the economic disaster in Brazil... Is it a sign of things to come? I think the horizon is bleak, but on the other hand,

People are working on Solar, Wind, Fusion (not fission) hydrogen from water, electricity from electrical eel genes inserted in pine trees, tidal electricity generators, electricity from granite beds, temperature differential electricity generators. I know there are a few versions of "permanent magnet motors" that have real promise.

It seems like you need is the right voltage frequency/harmonic between two electrodes of an alloy that helps liberate the hydrogen from the water to make flame. that way, you wouldn't need to carry lots of hydrogen, you could make it from the water. Similar to 'fuel cells' I think.

I'm greatly simplifying a complex molecular function, but it is on the horizon. I honestly think in a 100 years, our grandchildren will laugh that we "burned up dead animals (carbon)" to make fire-- Is that caveman stuff or what?

Please post/contribute to this thread-- I want to see what you guys know about this stuff.

Thanks-- happy holidays--

Wayne

plants

I don't have anything real on your subject... but I want to note that crude oil basically has nothing to do with 'dead animals' ... the percentage of carbon in crude oil that came from animals is way less than even 1percent.

It was ... plants.. mostly like cattails and lily pads... crude oil reserves are always where there were once river deltas... with swamp and marsh... year after year of new growth depositing on the old... eventually getting buried and compressed for millions of years to liquefy into the base elements.

the swamp near my house is 120 feet deep in muck and old buried growth... They have to pound pilings that deep to build on sometimes.

Its commonly mis-stated as 'dead dinosaurs'.... ????????... sssnot

xmas energy

,

elecxmas.jpg

Re: New energy/Free Energy

Ron Brown /

Wayne,

Here is one you can search for. I have a vague recollection of a news tidbit about 2 or 3 weeks ago. Apparently, Chrysler is testing a vehicle running on soap, or more correctly, borax, using some type of fuel cell.

Sorry I can't remember more than this.

Ron

Re: New energy/Free Energy

Reeperette /

The dude you wanna research on THIS issue....is Townsend Brown (see also: electrogravitics).

He kinda carried through on some of the work touched upon by ole Nikky Tesla, and took it in a way different direction.

Did you know there have BEEN functioning prototypes of an "Antigrav" style engine ?....problem is, they require so much power that the power supply weighs ten times the lifting ability, heh....and other flaws.

The technology's comin tho, just a matter of time.

Two interests of mine on this front are Electrogravitics, and Ion Engines.

We HAVE a functional Ion Engine right now, in fact look up DS1 and Ion Engine on any web search engine and you'll find out tons of stuff....our Ion-Engine-equipped explorer is doin damn well, better than ever expected and with way over DOUBLE the expected engine life.

Oh, yah...and I won't post it cause some folks might get upset and all....but you should have somethin in yer mailbox inna lil while relative to this, Wayne.

-R

Or not...

Reeperette /

Erk, no email addy.....gimme minnit here, and I will post the data anyhow, can't see too many folks gettin PO'ed about moped geeks knowin this stuff.

No claims as to the validy of veracity of the data, and no information about source will be given, besides, it's supposed to be declassified anyhow.

-R

ELECTROGRAVITICS SYSTEMS

Reeperette /

------------------------------------------------------------------------

ELECTROGRAVITICS SYSTEMS

The Declassified Report: Transcribed and Hereby Given to the World.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[My comments are in square brackets]

[And only a few have been inserted for clarification.]

[Spelling and punctuation have been retained as in the original report.]

[I give this to You and the World this day with deep Love.]

[Now Get Out of Your Head and Do Something About It!]

[If YOU Do Not Do Anything, Who Actually Will? And - For What?]

[Dr. StrangeQ. Christmas 1992.]

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Title Page]

ELECTROGRAVITICS SYSTEMS

An examination of electrostatic motion,

dynamic counterbary and barycentric control.

Prepared by:

Gravity Research Group

Aviation Studies (International) Limited

Special Weapons Study Unit

29-31 Cheval Place, Knightsbridge

London, S.W.7. England

Report GRG-013/56 February 1956.

AF Wright Aeronautical Laboratories

Wright-Patterson Air Force Base

Technical Library

Dayton, Ohio 45433

TL 565 A9

Bar Code: 3 1401 00034 5879

------------------------------------------------------------------------

CONTENTS

Page

Introductory Notes................. 1

Discussion......................... 3

Conclusions........................ 18

APPENDIX

I - Aviation Report extracts...... 21

II - Electrostatic Patents......... 33

PROPERTY OF USAF

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Page 1]

ELECTROGRAVITICS SYSTEMS

An examination of electrostatic motion,

dynamic counterbary and barycentric control.

It has been accepted as axiomatic that the way to offset the effects of

gravity is to use a lifting surface and considerable molecular energy to

produce a continuously applied force that, for a limited period of time, can

remain greater than the effects of gravitational attraction. The original

invention of the glider and evolution of the briefly self-sustaining glider,

at the turn of the century led to progressive advances in power and knowledge.

This has been directed to refining the classic Wright Brothers' approach.

Aircraft design is still fundamentally as the Wrights adumbrated it, with

wings, body, tails, moving or flapping controls, landing gear and so forth.

The Wright biplane was a powered glider, and all subsequent aircraft,

including the supersonic jets of the nineteen-fifties are also powered

gliders. Only one fundamentally different flying principle has so far been

adopted with varying degrees of success. It is the rotating wing aircraft that

has led to the jet lifters and vertical pushers, coleopters, ducted fans and

lift induction turbine propulsion systems.

But during these decades there was always the possibility of making efforts to

discover the nature of gravity from cosmic or quantum theory, investigation

and observation, with a view to discerning the physical properties of

aviation's enemy.

[Page 2]

It has seemed to Aviation Studies that for some time insufficient attention

has been directed to this kind of research. If it were successful such

developments would change the concept of sustentation, and confer upon a

vehicle qualities that would now be regarded as the ultimate in aviation.

This report summarizes in simple form the work that has been done and is being

done in the new field of electrogravitics. It also outlines the various

possible lines of research into the nature and constituent matter of gravity,

and how it has changed from Newton to Einstein to the modern Hlavaty concept

of gravity as an electromagnetic force that may be controlled like a light

wave.

The report also contains an outline of opinions on the feasibility of

different electrogravitics systems and there is reference to some of the

barycentric control and electrostatic rigs in operation.

Also included is a list of references to electrogravitics in successive

Aviation Reports since a drive was started by Aviation Studies (International)

Limited to suggest to aviation business eighteen months ago that the rewards

of success are too far-reaching to be overlooked, especially in view of the

hopeful judgement of the most authoritative voices in microphysics. Also

listed are some relevant patents on electrostatics and electrostatic

generators in the United States, United Kingdom and France.

[Signed]

Gravity Research Group

25 February 1956

[Page 3]

DISCUSSION

Electrogravitics might be described as a synthesis of electrostatic energy

used for propulsion - either vertical propulsion or horizontal or both - and

gravitics, or dynamic counterbary, in which energy is also used to set up a

local gravitational force independent of the earth's.

Electrostatic energy for propulsion has been predicted as a possible means of

propulsion in space when the thrust from a neutron motor or ion motor would be

sufficient in a dragless environment to produce astronomical velocities. But

the ion motor is not strictly a part of the science of electrogravitics, since

barycentric control in an electrogravitics system is envisaged for a vehicle

operating within the earth's environment and it is not seen initially for

space application. Probably large scale space operations would have to await

the full development of electrogravitics to enable large pieces of equipment

to be moved out of the region of the earth's strongest gravity effects. So,

though electrostatic motors were thought of in 1925, electrogravitics had its

birth after the War, when Townsend Brown sought to improve on the various

proposals that then existed for electrostatic motors sufficiently to produce

some visible manifestation of sustained motion. Whereas earlier electrostatic

tests were essentially pure research, Brown's rigs were aimed from the outset

at producing a flying article. As a private venture he produced evidence of

motion using condensers in a couple of saucers suspended by arms rotating

round a central tower with input running down the arms. The massive-k

situation was summarized subsequently in a report, Project Winterhaven, in

1952. Using the data some conclusions were arrived at that might be expected

from ten or more years of

[Page 4]

intensive development - similar to that, for instance, applied to the turbine

engine. Using a number of assumptions as to the nature of gravity, the report

postulated a saucer as the basis of a possible interceptor with Mach 3

capability. Creation of a local gravitational system would confer upon the

fighter the sharp-edged changes of direction typical of motion in space.

The essence of electrogravitics thrust is the use of a very strong positive

charge on one side of the vehicle and a negative on the other. The core of the

motor is a condenser and the ability of the condenser to hold its charge (the

k-number) is the yardstick of performance. With air as 1, current dielectrical

materials can yield 6 and use of barium aluminate can raise this considerably,

barium titanium oxide (a baked ceramic) can offer 6,000 and there is promise

of 30,000, which would be sufficient for supersonic speed.

The original Brown rig produced 30 fps on a voltage of around 50,000 and a

small amount of current in the milliamp range. There was no detailed

explanation of gravity in Project Winterhaven, but it was assumed that

particle dualism in the subatomic structure of gravity would coincide in its

effect with the issuing stream of electrons from the electrostatic energy

source to produce counterbary. The Brown work probably remains a realistic

approach to the practical realization of electrostatic propulsion and

sustentation. Whatever may be discovered by the Gravity Research Foundation of

New Boston a complete understanding and synthetic reproduction of gravity is

not essential for limited success. The electrogravitics saucer can perform the

function of a classic lifting surface - it produces a pushing effect on the

under surface and a suction effect on the upper, but, unlike the airfoil, it

does not require a flow of air to produce the effect.

[Page 5]

First attempts at electrogravitics are unlikely to produce counterbary, but

may lead to development of an electrostatic VTOL vehicle. Even in its

developed form this might be an advance on the molecular heat engine in its

capabilities. But hopes in the new science depend on an understanding of the

close identity of electrostatic motivating forces with the source and matter

of gravity. It is fortuitous that lift can be produced in the traditional

fashion and if an understanding of gravity remains beyond full practical

control, electrostatic lift might be an adjunct of some significance to modern

thrust producers. Research into electrostatics could prove beneficial to

turbine development, and heat engines in general, in view of the usable

electron potential round the periphery of any flame. Materials for

electrogravitics and especially the development of commercial quantities of

high-k material is another dividend to be obtained from electrostatic research

even if it produces no counterbary. This is a line of development that

Aviation Studies, Gravity Research Group is following.

One of the interesting aspects of electrogravitics is that a breakthrough in

almost any part of the broad front of general research on the intranuclear

processes may be translated into a meaningful advance towards the feasibility

of electrogravitics systems. This demands constant monitoring in the most

likely areas of the physics of high energy sub-nuclear particles. It is

difficult to be overoptimistic about the prospects of gaining so complete a

grasp of gravity while the world's physicists are still engaged in a study of

fundamental particles - that is to say those that cannot be broken down any

more. Fundamental particles are still being discovered - the most recent was

the Segre-Chamberlain-Wiegand attachment to the bevatron, which was used to

isolate the missing anti-proton, which must - or should be presumed to - exist

according to Dirac's theory of the electron.

[Page 6]

Much of the accepted mathematics of particles would be wrong if the

anti-proton was proved to be non-existent. Earlier Eddington has listed the

fundamental particles as:-

e. The charge of an electron

m. The mass of an electron.

M. The mass of a proton.

h. Planck's constant

c. The velocity of light.

G. The constant of gravitation, and

[Greek letter, small lambda]. The cosmical constant.

It is generally held that no one of these can be inferred from the others. But

electrons may well disappear from among the fundamental particles, though, as

Russell says, it is likely that e and m will survive. The constants are much

more established than the interpretation of them and are among the most solid

of achievements in modern physics.

Gravity may be defined as a small scale departure from Euclidean space in the

general theory of relativity. The gravitational constant is one of four

dimensionless constants: first, the mass relation of the nucleon and electron.

Second is (ee)/(hc) [equation form], third, the Compton wavelength of the

proton, and fourth is the gravitational constant, which is the ratio of the

electrostatic

[Page 7]

to the gravitational attraction between the electron and the proton.

One of the stumbling blocks in electrogravitics is the absence of any

satisfactory theory linking these four dimensionless quantities. Of the four,

moreover, gravity is decidedly the most complex, since any explanation would

have to satisfy both cosmic and quantum relations more acceptably and

intelligibly even than in the unified field theory. A gravitational constant

of around 10.E-39 [equation form] has emerged from quantum research and this

has been used as a tool for finding theories that could link the two

relations. This work is now in full progress, and developments have to be

watched for the aviation angle. Hitherto Dirac, Eddington, Jordan and others

have produced differences in theory that are too wide to be accepted as

consistent. It means therefore that (i) without a cosmical basis, and (ii)

with an imprecise quantum basis and (iii) a vague hypothesis on the

interaction, much remains still to be discovered. Indeed some say that a

single interacting theory to link up the dimensionless constants is one of

three major unresolved basic problems of physics. The other two main problems

are the extension of quantum theory and a more detailed knowledge of the

fundamental particles.

All this is some distance from Newton, who saw gravity as a force acting on a

body from a distance, leading to the tendency of bodies to accelerate towards

each other. He allied this assumption with Euclidean geometry, and time was

assumed as uniform and acted independently of space. Bodies and particles in

space normally moved uniformly in straight lines according to Newton, and to

account for the way they sometimes do not do so, he used the idea of a force

of gravity acting at a distance, in which particles of matter cause in others

an acceleration proportional to their mass, and inversely proportional to the

[Page 8]

square of the distance between them.

But Einstein showed how the principle of least action, or the so-called cosmic

laziness means that particles, on the contrary, follow the easiest path along

geodesic lines and as a result they get readily absorbed into space-time. So

was born non-linear physics. The classic example of non-linear physics is the

experiment in bombarding a screen with two slits. When both slits are open

particles going through are not the sum of the two individually but follows a

non-linear equation. This leads on to wave-particle dualism and that in turn

to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in which an increase in accuracy in

measurement of one physical quantity means decreasing accuracy in measuring

the other. If time is measured accurately energy calculations will be in

error; the more accurate the position of a particle is established the less

certain the velocity will be; and so on. This basic principle of the

acausality of microphysics affects the study of gravity in the special and

general theories of relativity. Lack of pictorial image in the quantum physics

of this interrelationship is a difficulty at the outset for those whose minds

remain obstinately Euclidean.

In the special theory of relativity, space-time is seen only as an undefined

interval which can be defined in any way that is convenient and the Newtonian

idea of persistent particles in motion to explain gravity cannot be accepted.

It must be seen rather as a synthesis of forces in a four dimensional

continuum, three to establish the position and one the time. The general

theory of relativity that followed a decade later was a geometrical

explanation of gravitation in which bodies take the geodesic path through

space-time. In turn this means that instead of the idea of force acting at a

distance it is assumed that space, time, radiation and particles are linked

and variations in them from gravity are due rather to the nature of space.

Page (9]

Thus gravity of a body such as the earth instead of pulling objects towards it

as Newton postulated, is adjusting the characteristics of space and, it may be

inferred, the quantum mechanics of space in the vicinity of the gravitational

force. Electrogravitics aims at correcting this adjustment to put matter, so

to speak, 'at rest'.

One of the difficulties in 1954 and 1955 was to get aviation to take

electrogravitics seriously. The name alone was enough to put people off.

However, in the trade much progress has been made and now most major companies

in the United States are interested in counterbary. Groups are being organised

to study electrostatic and electromagnetic phenomena. Most of industry's

leaders have made some reference to it. Douglas has now stated that it has

counterbary on its work agenda but does not expect results yet awhile. Hiller

has referred to new forms of flying platform, Glenn Martin say gravity control

could be achieved in six years, but they add that it would entail a Manhattan

District type of effort to bring it about. Sikorsky, one of the pioneers, more

or less agrees with the Douglas verdict and says that gravity is tangible and

formidable, but there must be a physical carrier for this immense

trans-spatial force. This implies that where a physical manifestation exists,

a physical device can be developed for creating a similar force moving in the

opposite direction to cancel it. Clarke Electronics state they have a rig, and

add that in their view the source of gravity's force will be understood sooner

than some people think. General Electric is working on the use of electronic

rigs designed to make adjustments to gravity - this line of attack has the

advantage of using rigs already in existence for other defence work. Bell also

has an experimental rig intended, as

[Page 10]

the company puts it, to cancel out gravity, and Lawrence Bell has said he is

convinced that practical hardware will emerge from current programs. Grover

Leoning is certain that what he referred to as an electro-magnetic

contra-gravity mechanism will be developed for practical use. Convair is

extensively committed to the work with several rigs. Lear Inc., autopilot and

electronic engineers have a division of the company working on gravity

research and so also has the Sperry division of Sperry-Rand. This list

embraces most of the U.S. aircraft industry. The remainder, Curtiss-Wright,

Lockheed, Boeing and North American have not yet declared themselves, but all

these four are known to be in various stages of study with and without rigs.

In addition, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is working on gravity,

the Gravity Research Foundation of New Boston, the Institute for Advanced

Study at Princeton, the CalTech Radiation Laboratory, Princeton University and

the University of North Carolina are all active in gravity. Glenn L. Martin is

setting up a Research Institute for Advanced Study which has a small staff

working on gravity research with the unified field theory and this group is

committed to extensive programs of applied research. Many others are also

known to be studying gravity, some are known also to be planning a general

expansion in this field, such as in the proposed Institute for Pure Physics at

the University of North Carolina.

A certain amount of work is also going on in Europe. One of the French

nationalized constructors and one company outside the nationalized elements

have been making preliminary studies, and a little company money has in one

case actually been committed. Some work is also going on in Britain where rigs

are now in existence. Most of it is private venture work, such

[Page 11]

as that being done by Ed Hull a colleague of Townsend Brown who, as much as

anybody, introduced Europe to electrogravitics. Aviation Studies' Gravity

Research Group is doing some work, mainly on k studies, and is sponsoring

dielectric investigations.

One Swedish company and two Canadian companies have been making studies, and

quite recently the Germans have woken up to the possibilities. Several of the

companies have started digging out some of the early German papers on wave

physics. They are almost certain to plan a gravitics program. Curiously enough

the Germans during the war paid no attention to electrogravitics. This is one

line of advance that they did not pioneer in any way and it was basically a

U.S. creation. Townsend Brown in electrogravitics is the equivalent of Frank

Whittle in gas turbines. This German overlooking of electrostatics is even

more surprising when it is remembered how astonishingly advanced and prescient

the Germans were in nuclear research. (The modern theory of making

thermonuclear weapons without plutonium fission initiators returns to the

original German idea that was dismissed, even ridiculed. The Germans never

went very far with fission, indeed they doubted that this chain would ever be

made to work. The German air industry, still in the embryo stage, has included

electrogravitics among the subjects it intends to examine when establishing

the policy that the individual companies will adopt after the present early

stage of foreign licence has enabled industry to get abreast of the other

countries in aircraft development.

It is impossible to read through this summary of the widening efforts being

made to understand the nature of matter of gravity without sharing the hope

that many groups now have, of major theoretical breakthroughs occurring before

very long.

[Page 12]

Experience in nucleonics has shown that when attempts to win knowledge on this

scale are made, advances are soon seen. There are a number of elements in

industry, and some managements, who see gravity as a problem for later

generations. Many see nothing in it all and they may be right. But as said

earlier, if Dr. Vaclav Hlavaty thinks gravity is potentially controllable that

surely should be justification enough, and indeed inspiration, for physicists

to apply their minds and for management to take a risk. Hlavaty is the only

man who thinks he can see a way of doing the mathematics to demonstrate

Einstein's unified field theory - something that Einstein himself said was

beyond him. Relativity and the unified field theory go to the root of

electrogravitics and the shifts in thinking, the hopes and fears, and a

measure of progress is to be obtained only in the last resort from men of this

stature.

Major theoretical breakthroughs to discover the sources of gravity will be

made by the most advanced intellects using the most advanced research tools.

Aviation's role is therefore to impress upon physicists of this calibre with

the urgency of the matter and to aid them with statistical and peripheral

investigations that will help to clarify the background to the central

mathematical and physical puzzles. Aviation could also assist by recruiting

some of these men as advisers. Convair has taken the initiative with its

recently established panel of advisers on nuclear projects, which include Dr.

Edward Teller of the University of California. At the same time much can be

done in development of laboratory rigs, condenser research and dielectric

development, which do not require anything like the same cerebral capacity to

get results and make a practical contribution

As gravity is likely to be linked with the new particles, only the highest

powered particle accelerators are likely to be of use

[Page 13]

in further fundamental knowledge. The country with the biggest tools of this

kind is in the best position to examine the characteristics of the particles

and from those countries the greatest advances seem most likely.

Though the United States has the biggest of the bevatron - the Berkeley

bevatron is 6.2 bev - the Russians have a 10 bev accelerator in construction

which, when it is completed, will be the world's largest. At Brookhaven a 25

bev instrument is in development which, in turn, will be the biggest. Other

countries without comparable facilities are of course at a great disadvantage

from the outset in the contest to discover the explanation of gravity.

Electrogravitics, moreover, unfortunately competes with nuclear studies for

its facilities. The clearest thinking brains are bound to be attracted to

localities where the most extensive laboratory equipment exists. So, one way

and another, results are most likely to come from the major countries with the

biggest undertakings. Thus the nuclear facilities have a direct bearing on the

scope for electrogravitics work.

The OEEC report in January made the following points:-

The U.S. has six to eight entirely different types of reactor in operation and

many more under construction. Europe has now two different types in service.

The U.S. has about 30 research reactors plus four in Britain,, two in France.

The U.S. has two nuclear-powered marine engines. Europe has none, but the U.K.

is building one.

[Page 14]

Isotope separation plants for the enrichment of uranium in the U.S. are

roughly 11 times larger than the European plant in Britain.

Europe's only heavy water plant (in Norway) produces somewhat less than

one-twentieth of American output.

In 1955 the number of technicians employed in nuclear energy work in the U.S.

was about 15,000; there are about 5,000 in Britain, 1,800 in France, and about

19,000 in the rest of Europe. But the working party says that pessimistic

conclusions should not be drawn from these comparisons. European nuclear

energy effort is unevenly divided at the moment, but some countries have

notable achievements to their credit and important developments in prospect.

The main reason for optimism is that, taken as a whole, "Europe's present

nuclear effort falls very far short of its industrial potential".

Though gravity research, such as there has been of it, has been unclassified,

new principles and information gained from the nuclear research facilities

that have a vehicle application is expected to be withheld.

The heart of the problem to understanding gravity is likely to prove to be the

way in which the very high energy sub-nuclear particles convert something,

whatever it is, continuously and automatically into the tremendous nuclear and

electromagnetic forces. Once this key is understood, attention can later be

directed to finding laboratory means of duplicating the process and reversing

its force lines in some local environment and returning the energy to itself

to produce counterbary. Looking beyond it seems possible that gravitation will

be shown to be a part of the universal electro-magnetic processes and

controlled

[Page 15]

in the same way as a light wave or radio wave. This is a synthesis of the

Einstein and Hlavaty concepts. Hence it follows that though in its initial

form the mechanical processes for countering gravity may initially be massive

to deal with the massive forces involved, eventually this could be expected to

form some central power generation unit. Barycentric control in some required

quantity could be passed over a distance by a form of radio wave. The prime

energy source to energise the waves would of course be nuclear in its origins.

It is difficult to say which lines of detailed development being processed in

the immediate future is more likely to yield significant results. Perhaps the

three most promising are: first, the new attempt by the team of men led by

Chamberlain working with the Berkeley bevatron to find the anti-neutron, and

to identify more of the characteristics of the anti-proton and each of the

string of high energy particles that have been discovered during recent

operation at 6. 2 bev.

A second line of approach is the United States National Bureau of Standards

program to pin down with greater accuracy the acceleration values of gravity.

The presently accepted figure

-------------------------------------------------------------

The reaction is as follows: protons are accelerated to 6.2 bev, and directed

at a target of copper. When the proton projectile hits a neutron in one of the

copper atoms the following emerge: the two original particles (the projectile

and the struck neutron) and a new pair of particles, a proton and anti-proton.

The anti-proton continues briefly until it hits another proton, then both

disappear and decay into mesons.

------------------------------------------------------------

[Page 16]

of 32.174 feet per second per second is known to be not comprehensive, though

it has been sufficiently accurate for the limited needs of industry hitherto.

The NBS program aims at re-determining the strength of gravity to within one

part of a million. The present method has been to hold a ball 16 feet up and

chart the elapsed time of descent with electronic measuring equipment. The new

program is based on the old, but with this exceptional degree of accuracy it

is naturally immensely more difficult and is expected to take 3 years.

A third promising line is the new technique of measuring high energy particles

in motion that was started by the University of California last year. This

involves passing cosmic rays through a chamber containing a mixture of gas,

alcohol and water vapour. This creates charged atoms, or positive ions, by

knocking electrons off the gas molecules. A sudden expansion of the chamber

results in a condensation of water droplets along the track which can be

plotted on a photographic plate. This method makes it easier to assess the

energy of particles and to distinguish one from the other. It also helps to

establish the characteristics of the different types of particle. The

relationship between these high energy particles and their origin, and

characteristics have a bearing on electrogravitics in general.

So much of what has to be discovered as a necessary preliminary to gravity is

of no practical use by itself. There is no conceivable use, for instance, for

the anti-proton, yet its discovery even at a cost of $9-million is essential

to check the mathematics of the fundamental components of matter. Similarly it

is necessary to check that all the nuclear ghosts that have been postulated

theoretically do in fact exist. It is not, moreover, sufficient, as in the

past, only to observe the particles by

[Page 17]

radiation counters. In each instance a mechanical maze has to be devised and

attached to a particle accelerator to trap only the particle concerned. Each

discovery becomes a wedge for a deeper probe of the nucleus. Many of the

particles of very high energy have only a fleeting existence and collisions

that give rise to them from bevatron bombardment is a necessary prerequisite

to an understanding of gravity. There are no shortcuts to this process.

Most of the major programs for extending human knowledge

on gravity are being conducted with instruments already in use for nuclear

research and to this extent the cost of work exclusively on gravitational

examinations is still not of major proportions. This has made it difficult for

aviation to gauge the extent of the work in progress on gravity research.

[Page 18]

CONCLUSIONS

1. No attempts to control the magnitude or direction of the earth's

gravitational force have yet been successful. But if the explanation of

gravity is to be found in the as yet undetermined characteristics of the very

high energy particles it is becoming increasingly possible with the bevatron

to work with the constituent matter of gravity. It is therefore reasonable to

expect that the new bevatron may, before long, be used to demonstrate limited

gravitational control.

2. An understanding and identification of these particles is on the frontiers

of human knowledge, and a full assessment of them is one of the major

unresolved puzzles of the nucleus. An associated problem is to discover a

theory to account for the cosmic and quantum relations of gravity, and a

theory to link the gravitational constant with the other three dimensionless

constants.

3. Though the obstacles to an adequate grasp of microphysics still seem

formidable, the transportation rewards that could follow from electrogravitics

are as high as can be envisaged. In a weightless environment, movement with

sharp-edged changes of direction could offer unique manoeuvrability.

4. Determination of the environment of the anti-proton, discovery

[Page 19]

of the anti-neutron and closer examination of the other high energy particles

are preliminaries to the hypothesis that gravity is one aspect of

electromagnetism that may eventually be controlled like a wave. When the

structure of the nucleus becomes clearer, the influence of the gravitational

force upon the nucleus and the nature of its behaviour in space will be more

readily understood. This is a great advance on the Newtonian concept of

gravity acting at a distance.

5. Aviation's role appears to be to establish facilities to handle many of the

peripheral and statistical investigations to help fill in the background on

electrostatics.

6. A distinction has to be made between electrostatic energy for propulsion

and counterbary. Counterbary is the manipulation of gravitational force lines;

barycentric control is the adjustment to such manipulative capability to

produce a stable type of motion suitable for transportation.

7. Electrostatic energy sufficient to produce low speeds (a few thousand

dynes, has already been demonstrated. Generation of a region of positive

electrostatic energy on one side of a plate and negative on the other sets up

the same lift or propulsion effect as the pressure and suction below and above

a wing, except that in the case of electrostatic application no airflow is

necessary.

8. Electrostatic energy sufficient to produce a Mach 3 fighter is possible

with megavolt energies and a k of over 10,000.

[Page 20]

9. k figures of 6,000 have been obtained from some ceramic materials and there

are prospects of 30,000.

10. Apart from electrogravitics there are other rewards from investment in

electrostatic equipment. Automation, autonetics and even turbine development

use similar laboratory facilities.

11. Progress in electrogravitics probably awaits a new genius in physics who

can find a single equation to tie up all the conflicting observations and

theory on the structure and arrangement of forces and the part the high energy

particles play in the nucleus. This can occur any time, and the chances are

improved now that bev. energies are being obtained in controlled laboratory

conditions.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

(New Page]

APPENDIX I

EXTRACTS FROM AVIATION REPORT

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Page 21]

ANTI-GRAVITATION RESEARCH

The basic research and technology behind electro-anti-gravitation is so much

in its infancy that this is perhaps one field of development where not only

the methods but the ideas are secret. Nothing therefore can be discussed

freely at the moment. Very few papers on the subject have been prepared so

far, and the only schemes that have seen the light of day are for pure

research into rigs designed to make objects float around freely in a box.

There are various radio applications, and aviation medicine departments have

been looking for something that will enable them to study the physiological

effects on the digestion and organs of an environment without gravity. There

are however long term aims of a more revolutionary nature that envisage

equipment that can defeat gravity.

Aviation Report 20 August 1954

MANAGERIAL POLICY FOR ANTI-GRAVITICS

The prospect of engineers devising gravity-defeating equipment - or perhaps it

should be described as the creation of pockets of weightless environments -

does suggest that as a long term policy aircraft constructors will be required

to place even more emphasis on electro-mechanical industrial plant, than is

now required for the transition from manned to unmanned weapons.

Anti-gravitics work is therefore likely to go to companies with the biggest

electrical laboratories and facilities. It is also apparent that

anti-gravitics, like other advanced sciences, will be initially sponsored for

its weapon capabilities. There are perhaps two broad ways of using the science

- one is to postulate the design of advanced type projectiles on their best

inherent capabilities, and the more critical parameters (that now constitutes

the design limitation) can be eliminated by anti-gravitics. The other, which

is a longer term plan, is to create an entirely new environment with devices

operating entirely under an anti-gravity envelope.

Aviation Report 24 August 1954

[PAGE 22]

THE GREATER THE EASIER

Propulsion and atomic energy Trends are similar in one respect: the more

incredible the long term capabilities are, the easier it is to attain them. It

is strange that the greatest of nature's secrets can be harnessed with

decreasing industrial effort, but greatly increasing mental effort. The

Americans went through the industrial torture to produce tritium for the first

thermonuclear experiment, but later both they and the Russians were able to

achieve much greater results with the help of lithium 6 hydride. The same

thing is happening in aviation propulsion: the nuclear fuels are promising to

be tremendously powerful in their effect, but excessively complicated in their

application, unless there can be some means of direct conversion as in the

strontium 90 cell. But lying behind and beyond the nuclear fuels is the

linking of electricity to gravity, which is an incomparably more powerful way

of harnessing energy than the only method known to human intellect at present

- electricity and magnetism. Perhaps the magic of barium aluminium oxide will

perform the miracle in propulsion that lithium 6 hydride has done in the

fusion weapon. Certainly it is a well-known material in dielectrics, but when

one talks of massive-k, one means of course five figures. At this early stage

it is difficult to relate k to Mach numbers with any certainty, but realizable

k can, with some kinds of arithmetic, produce astounding velocities. They are

achievable, moreover, with decreasing complexity, indeed the ultimate becomes

the easiest in terms of engineering, but the most hideous in terms of theory.

Einstein's general theory of relativity is, naturally, and important factor,

but some of the postulates appear to depend on the unified field theory, which

cannot yet be physically checked because nobody knows how to do it. Einstein

hopes to find a way of doing so before he dies.

Aviation Report 31 August 1954

GRAVITICS FORMULATIONS

All indications are that there has still been little cognizance of the

potentialities of electrostatic propulsion and it will be a major

[Page 23]

undertaking to re-arrange aircraft plants to conduct large-scale research and

development into novel forms of dielectric and to improve condenser

efficiencies and to develop the novel type of materials used for fabrication

of the primary structure. Some extremely ambitious theoretical programs have

been submitted and work towards realization of a manned vehicle has begun. On

the evidence, there are far more definite indications that the incredible

claims are realizable than there was, for instance, in supposing that uranium

fission would result in a bomb. At least it is known, proof positive, that

motion, using surprisingly low k, is possible. The fantastic control that

again is feasible, has not yet been demonstrated, but there is no reason to

suppose the arithmetic is faulty, especially as it has already led to a quite

brisk example of actual propulsion.

That first movement was indeed an historic occasion, reminiscent of the

momentous day at Chicago when the first pile went critical, and the phenomenon

was scarcely less weird. It is difficult to imagine just where a

well-organised examination into long term gravitics prospects would end.

Though a circular platform is electrostatically convenient, it does not

necessarily follow that the requirements of control by differential changes

would be the same. Perhaps the strangest part of this whole chapter is how the

public managed to foresee the concept though not of course the theoretical

principles that gave rise to it, before physical tests confirmed that the

mathematics was right. It is interesting also that there is no point of

contact between the conventional science of aviation and the New: it is a

radical offshoot with no common principles. Aerodynamics, structures, heat

engines, flapping controls, and all the rest of aviation is part of what might

be called the Wright Brothers era - even the Mach 2.5 thermal barrier piercers

are still Wright Brothers concepts, in the sense that they fly and they stall,

and they run out of fuel after a short while, and they defy the earth's pull

for a short while. Thus this century will be divided into two parts - almost

to the day. The first half belonged to the Wright Brothers who foresaw nearly

all the basic issues in which gravity was the bitter foe. In part of the

second half gravity will be the great provider. Electrical energy, rather

irrelevant for propulsion in

[Page 24]

the first half becomes a kind of catalyst to motion, in the second half of the

century.

Aviation Report 7 September 1954

ELECTRO-GRAVITICS PARADOX

Realization of electro-static propulsion seems to depend on two theoretical

twists and two practical ones. The two theoretical puzzles are: first, how to

make a condenser the centre of a propulsion system, and second is how to link

the condenser system with the gravitational field. There is a third problem,

but it is some way off yet, which is how to manipulate kva for control in all

three axes as well as for propulsion and lift. The two practical tricks are

first how, with say a Mach 3 weapon in mind, to handle 50,000 kva within the

envelope of a thin pancake of 35 feet in diameter and second how to generate

such power from within so small a space. The electrical power in a small

aircraft is more than is a fair sized community the analogy being that a

single rocketjet can provide as much power as can be obtained from the Hoover

Dam. It will naturally take as long to develop electro-static propulsion as it

has taken to coax the enormous power outputs from heat engines. True there

might be a flame in the electro-gravitic propulsion system, but it would not

be a heat engine - the temperature of the flame would be incidental to the

function of the chemical burning process.

The curious thing is that though electro-static propulsion is the antithesis

of magnetism, Einstein's unified field theory is an attempt to link

gravitation with electro-magnetism. This all-embracing theory goes on

logically from the general theory of relativity, that gives an ingenious

geometrical interpretation of the concept of force which is mathematically

consistent with gravitation but fails in the case of electro-magnetism, while

the special theory of relativity is concerned with the relationship between

mass and energy. The general theory of relativity fails to account for

electro-magnetism because the forces are proportional to the charge and not to

the mass. The unified field theory is one of a number of attempts that have

been made to bridge this gap, but it is baffling to imagine how it could ever

be observed. Einstein himself thinks it is virtually impossible. However

Hlavaty claims now to have solved the equations by assuming that gravitation

is a manifestation of electro-magnetism.

This being so it is all the more incredible that electro-static

------------------------------------------------------------------------

Though in a sense this is true, it is better expressed in the body of this

report than it was here in 1954.

[Page 25]

propulsion (with kva for convenience fed into the system and not

self-generated) has actually been demonstrated. It may be that to apply all

this very abstruse physics to aviation it will be necessary to accept that the

theory is more important than this or that interpretation of it. This is how

the physical constants, which are now regarded as among the most solid of

achievements in modern physics, have become workable, and accepted. Certainly

all normal instincts would support the Einstein series of postulations, and if

this is so it is a matter of conjecture where it will lead in the long term

future of the electro-gravitic science.

Aviation Report 10 September 1954

ELECTRO-GRAVITIC PROPULSION SITUATION

Under the terms of Project Winterhaven the proposals to develop

electro-gravitics to the point of realizing a Mach 3 combat type disc were not

far short of the extensive effort that was planned for the Manhattan

District. Indeed the drive to develop the new prime mover is in some respects

rather similar to the experiments that led to the release of nuclear energy in

the sense that both involve fantastic mathematical capacity and both are

sciences so new that other allied sciences cannot be of very much guide. In

the past two years since the principle of motion by means of massive-k was

first demonstrated on a test rig, progress has been slow. But the indications

are now that the Pentagon is ready to sponsor a range of devices help further

knowledge. In effect the new family of TVs would be on the same tremendous

scope that was envisaged by the X-1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 and D.558s that were all

created for the purpose of destroying the sound barrier - which they

effectively did, but it is a process that is taking ten solid years of hard

work to complete. (Now after 7 years the X-2 has yet to start its tests and

the X-3 is still in performance testing stage). Tentative targets now being

set anticipate that the first disc should be complete before 1960 and it would

take the whole of the 'sixties to develop it properly, even though some combat

things might be available ten years from now.

One thing seems certain at this stage, that the companies likely to dominate

the science will be those with the biggest

------------------------------------------------------------------------

The proposals, it should be added, were not accepted.

[Page 26]

computors to work out the ramifications of the basic theory. Douglas is easily

the world's leader in computor capacity, followed by Lockheed and Convair. The

frame incidentally is indivisible from the engine". If there is to be any

division of responsibility it would be that the engine industry might become

responsible for providing the electrostatic energy (by, it is thought, a kind

of flame) and the frame maker for the condenser assembly which is the core of

the main structure.

Aviation Report 12 October 1954

GRAVITICS STUDY WIDENING

The French are now understood to be pondering the most effective way of entering

the field of electro-gravitic propulsion systems. But not least of the

difficulties is to know just where to begin. There are practically no patents

so far that throw very much light on the mathematics of the relation between

electricity and gravity. There is, of course, a large number of patents on the

general subject of motion and force, and some of these may prove to have some

application. There is, however, a series of working postulations embodied in

the original Project Winterhaven, but no real attempt has been made in the

working papers to go into the detailed engineering. All that had actually been

achieved up to just under a year ago was a series of fairly accurate

extrapolations from the sketchy data that has so far been actually observed.

The extrapolation of 50 mph to 1,800 mph, however, (which is what the present

hopes and aspirations amount to) is bound to be a rather vague exercise. This

explains American private views that nothing can be reasonably expected from

the science yet awhile. Meanwhile, the NACA is active, and nearly all the

Universities are doing work that borders close to what is involved here, and

something fruitful is likely to turn up before very long.

Aviation Report 19 October 1954

GRAVITICS STEPS

Specification writers seem to be still rather stumped to know what to ask for

in the very hazy science of electro-gravitic

[Page 27]

propelled vehicles. They are at present faced with having to plan the first

family of things - first of these is the most realistic type of operational

test rig, and second the first type of test vehicle. In turn this would lead

to sponsoring of a combat disc. The preliminary test rigs which gave only

feeble propulsion have been somewhat improved, but of course the speeds

reached so far are only those more associated with what is attained on the

roads rather than in the air. But propulsion is now known to be possible, so

it is a matter of feeding enough KVA into condensers with better k figures.

50,000 is a magic figure for the combat saucer - it is this amount of KVA and

this amount of k that can be translated into Mach 3 speeds.

Meanwhile Glenn Martin now feels ready to say in public that they are

examining the unified field theory to see what can be done. It would probably

be truer to say that Martin and other companies are now looking for men who

can make some kind of sense out of Einstein's equations. There's nobody in the

air industry at present with the faintest idea of what it is all about. Also,

just as necessary, companies have somehow to find administrators who know

enough of the mathematics to be able to guess what kind of industrial

investment is likely to be necessary for the company to secure the most

rewarding prime contracts in the new science. This again is not so easy since

much of the mathematics just cannot be translated into words. You either

understand the figures, or you cannot ever have it explained to you. This is

rather new because even things like indeterminacy in quantum mechanics can be

more or less put into words.

Perhaps the main thing for management to bear in mind in recruiting men is

that essentially electro-gravitics is a branch of wave technology and much of

it starts with Planck's dimensions of action, energy and time, and some of

this is among the most firm and least controversial sections of modern atomic

physics.

Aviation Report 19 November 1954.

ELECTROGRAVITICS PUZZLE

Back in 1948 and 49, the public in the U.S. had a surprisingly clear idea of

what a flying saucer should, or could, do. There has never at any time been

any realistic explanation of

[Page 28]

what propulsion agency could make it do those things, but its ability to move

within its own gravitation field was presupposed from its manoeuvrability. Yet

all this was at least two years before electro-static energy was shown to

produce propulsion. It is curious that the public were so ahead of the

empiricists on this occasion, and there are two possible explanations. One is

that optical illusions or atmospheric phenomena offered a preconceived idea of

how the ultimate aviation device ought to work. The other explanation might be

that this was a recrudescence of Jung's theory of the Universal Mind which

moves up and down in relation to the capabilities of the highest intellects

and this may be a case of it reaching a very high peak of perception.

But for the air industries to realize an electro-gravitic aircraft means a

return to basic principles in nuclear physics, and a re-examination of much in

wave technology that has hitherto been taken for granted. Anything that goes

any way towards proving the unified field theory will have as great a bearing

on electro-gravitics efforts as on the furtherance of nuclear power generally.

But the aircraft industry might as well face up to the fact that priorities

will in the end be competing with the existing nuclear science commitments.

The fact that electro-gravitics has important applications other than for a

weapon will however strengthen the case for governments to get in on the work

going on.

Aviation Report 28 January 1955

MANAGEMENT NOTE FOR ELECTRO-GRAVITICS

The gas turbine engine produced two new companies in the U.S. engine field and

they have, between them, at various times offered the traditional primes

rather formidable competition. Indeed GE at this moment has, in the view of

some, taken the Number Two position. In Britain no new firms managed to get a

footing but one, Metro-Vick, might have done if it had put its whole energies

into the business. It is on the whole unfortunate for Britain that no bright

newcomer has been able to screw up competition in the engine field as English

Electric have done in the airframe business.

[Page 29]

Unlike the turbine engine, electro-gravitics is not just a new propulsion

system, it is a new mode of thought in aviation and communications, and it is

something that may become all-embracing. Theoretical studies of the science

unfortunately have to extend right down to the mathematics of the meson and

there is no escape from that. But the relevant facts wrung from the nature of

the nuclear structure will have their impact on the propulsion system, the

airframe and also its guidance. The airframe, as such, would not exist, and

what is now a complicated stressed structure becomes some convenient form of

hard envelope. New companies therefore who would like to see themselves as

major defence prime contractors in ten or fifteen years time are the ones most

likely to stimulate development. Several typical companies in Britain and the

U.S. come to mind - outfits like AiResearch, Raytheon, Plessey in England,

Rotax and others. But the companies have to face a decade of costly research

into theoretical physics and it means a great deal of trust. Companies are

mostly overloaded already and they cannot afford it, but when they sit down

and think about the matter they can scarcely avoid the conclusion that they

cannot afford not to be in at the beginning.

Aviation Report 8 February 1955

ELECTRO-GRAVITICS BREAKTHROUGHS

Lawrence Bell said last week he thought that the tempo of development leading

to the use of nuclear fuels and anti-gravitational vehicles (he meant

presumably ones that create their own gravitational field independently of the

earth's) would accelerate. He added that the breakthroughs now feasible will

advance their introduction ahead of the time it has taken to develop the

turbojet to its present pitch. Beyond the thermal barrier was a radiation

barrier, and he might have added ozone poisoning and meteorite hazards, and

beyond that again a time barrier. Time however is not a single calculable

entity and Einstein has taught that an absolute barrier to aviation is the

environmental barrier in which there are physical limits to any kind of

movement from one point in space-time continuum to another. Bell (the company

not the man) have a reputation as

[Page 30]

experimentalists and are not so earthy as some of the other U.S. companies; so

while this first judgement on progress with electrogravitics is interesting,

further word is awaited from the other major elements of the air business.

Most of the companies are now studying several forms of propulsion without

heat engines though it is early days yet to determine which method will see

the light of day first. Procurement will open out because the capabilities of

such aircraft are immeasurably greater than those envisaged with any known

form of engine.

Aviation Report 15 July 1955

THERMONUCLEAR-ELECTROGRAVITICS INTERACTION

The point has been made that the most likely way of achieving the

comparatively low fusion heat needed - l,000,000 degrees provided it can be

sustained (which it cannot be in fission for more than a microsecond or two of

time) - is by use of a linear accelerator. The concentration of energy that

may be obtained when accelerators are rigged in certain ways make the

production of very high temperatures feasible but whether they could be

concentrated enough to avoid a thermal heat problem remains to be seen. It has

also been suggested that linear accelerators would be the way to develop the

high electrical energies needed for creation of local gravitational systems.

It is possible therefore to imagine that the central core of a future air

vehicle might be a linear accelerator which would create a local weightless

state by use of electrostatic energy and turn heat into energy without

chemical processes for propulsion. Eventually - towards the end of this

century - the linear accelerator itself would not be required and a ground

generating plant would transmit the necessary energy for both purposes by wave

propagation.

Aviation Report 30 August 1955

POINT ABOUT THERMONUCLEAR REACTION REACTORS

The 20 year estimate by the AEC last week that lies between present research

frontiers and the fusion reactor

[Page 31]

probably refers to the time it will take to tap fusion heat. But it may be

thought that rather than use the molecular and chemical processes of twisting

heat into thrust it would be more appropriate to use the now heat source in

conjunction with some form of nuclear thrust producer which would be in the

form of electrostatic energy. The first two Boeing nuclearjet prototypes now

under way are being designed to take either molecular jets or nuclear jets in

case the latter are held up for one reason or another. But the change from

molecular to direct nuclear thrust production in conjunction with the

thermonuclear reactor is likely to make the aircraft designed around the

latter a totally different breed of cat. It is also expected to take longer

than two decades, though younger executives in trade might expect to live to

see a prototype.

Aviation Report 14 October 1955

ELECTROGRAVITICS FEASIBILITY

Opinion on the prospects of using electrostatic energy for propulsion, and

eventually for creation of a local gravitational field isolated from the

earth's has naturally polarized into the two opposite extremes. There are

those who say it is nonsense from start to finish, and those who are satisfied

from performance already physically manifest that it is possible and will

produce air vehicles with absolute capabilities and no moving parts. The

feasibility of a Mach 3 fighter (the present aim in studies) is dependent on a

rather large k extrapolation, considering the pair of saucers that have

physically demonstrated the principle only a achieved a speed of some 30 fps.

But, and this is important, they have attained a working velocity using very

inefficient (even by to-day's knowledge) form of condenser complex. These

humble beginnings are surely as hopeful as Whittle's early postulations.

It was, by the way, largely due to the early references in Aviation Report

that work is gathering momentum in the U.S. Similar studies are beginning in

France, and in England some men are on the job full time.

Aviation Report 15 November 1955

[Page 32]

ELECTRO-GRAVITICS EFFORT WIDENING

Companies studying the implications of gravitics are said in a new statement,

to include Glenn Martin, Convair, Sperry-Rand, Sikorsky, Bell, Lear Inc. and

Clark Electronics. Other companies who have previously evinced interest

include Lockheed Douglas and Hiller. The remainder are not disinterested, but

have not given public support to the new science - which is widening all the

time. The approach in the U.S. is in a sense more ambitious than might have

been expected. The logical approach, which has been suggested by Aviation

Studies, is to concentrate on improving the output of electrostatic rigs in

existence that are known to be able to provide thrust. The aim would be to

concentrate on electrostatics for propulsion first and widen the practical

engineering to include establishment of local gravity forcelines, independent

of those of the earth's, to provide unfettered vertical movement as and when

the mathematics develops.

However, the U.S. approach is rather to put money into fundamental theoretical

physics of gravitation in an effort first to create the local gravitation

field. Working rigs would follow in the wake of the basic discoveries.

Probably the correct course would be to sponsor both approaches, and it is now

time that the military stepped in with big funds. The trouble about the

idealistic approach to gravity is that the aircraft companies do not have the

men to conduct such work. There is every expectation in any case that the

companies likely to find the answers lie outside the aviation field. These

would emerge as the masters of aviation in its broadest sense.

The feeling is therefore that a company like A. T. & T. is most likely to be

first in this field. This giant company (unknown in the air and weapons field)

has already revolutionized modern warfare with the development of the junction

transistor and is expected to find the final answers to absolute vehicle

levitation. This therefore is where the bulk of the sponsoring money should

go.

Aviation Report 9 December 1955

*

------------------------------------------------------------------------

APPENDIX II

ELECTROSTATIC PATENTS

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Page 33]

[This table has been retyped to fit this 60 column file format]

[The report has the dates before the titles on the same line.]

[All other formatting and spelling is exact.]

ELECTROSTATIC MOTORS

(a) American Patents still in force.

2,413,391 Radio Corp. America Power Supply System

20-6-42/31-12-46

2,417,452 Ratheon Mfg. Co. Electrical System

17-1-44/18- 3-47

2,506,472 W.B. Smits Electrical Ignition Apparatus

3-7-46Holl/ 2- 5-50

2,545,354 G.E.C. Generator

16-3-50/13- 3-51

(-Engl.P.676,953)

2,567,373 Radio Corp. America El'static Generator

10-6-49/11- 9-51

2,577,446 Chatham Electronics El'static Voltage Generator

5-8-50/ 4-12-51

2,578,908 US-Atomic Energy C. El'static Voltage Generator

26-5-47/18-12-51

2,588,513 Radio Corp. America El'static High-Voltage Generator

10-6-49/11- 3-52

2,610,994 Chatham Electronics El'static Voltage Generator

1-9-50/16- 9-52

2,662,191 P. Okey El'static Machine

31-7-52/8 -12-53

2,667,615 R.G. Brown El'static Generator

30-1-52/26- 1-54

2,671,177 Consolidated Engg. Corp El'static Charging App's

4-9-51/2 - 3-54

2,701,844 H.R. Wasson El'static Generator of

Electricity

8-1250/ 8- 2-55

2,702,353 US-Navy Miniature Printed Circuit

Electrostatic Generator

17-7-52/15- 2-55

(b) British patents still in force.

651,153 Metr.-Vickers Electr.Co. Voltage Transformation of

electrical energy

20-5-48/14- 3-51

651,295 Ch.F.Warthen sr. (U.S.A.) Electrostatic A.C. Generator

6-8-48/14- 3-51

731,774 "Licentia" El'static High-Voltage

Generator

19-9-52 & 21-11-52Gy/15- 6-55

(c) French patents still in force.

753,363 H. Chaumat Moteur electrostatique

utilisant l'energie cinetique

d'ions gazeux

19-7-32/13-10-33

. 749,832 H. Chaumat Machine electrostatique a

excitation independante

24-1-32/29- 7-33

[Page 34]

[This table has been retyped to fit this 60 column file format]

[The report has the titles at the end of each line, w/o ().]

[All other formatting and spelling is exact.]

The following patents derive from P. Jolivet (Algiers), marked "A" and from

N.J. Felici, E. Gartner (Centre National des Recherches Scientifique - CRNS -)

later also by R. Morel, M. Point etc. (S.A. des Machines Electrostatiques

-SAMES-) and of Societe' d'Appareils de Controle et d'Equipment des Moteurs

-SACEM-), marked "G " (because the development was centred at the University

Grenoble.

Mark of Application England America France Germany (Title)

Applicant Date ------- ------- ------ ------- -------

--------- -----------

G 8-11-44) 993,017

14- 8-45) 637,434 2,486,140 56,027 860,649

(Electrostatic Influence Machine

G 17-11-44 639,653 2,523,688 993,052 815,667

(Electrostatic Influence Machine

A 28- 2-45 912,444

(Inducteurs de Machines el'static)

G 3- 3-45 643,660 2,519,554 995,442 882,586

(El'static Machines

A 8- 6-45 915,929

(Machines electrocstatiques a flasques)

A 16- 8-45 918,547

(Generatrice el'statique)

G 20- 9-45) 998,397

21- 9-45) 643,664 2,523,689 837,267

(Electrostatic Machines)

A 4- 2-46 923,593

(Generatrice el'statique)

G 17- 7-46 643,579 2,530,193 1002,031 811,595

(Generating Machines)

G 20- 2-47 671,033 2,590,168

(Ignition device)

G 21-3 -47 2,542,494

655,474 Re-23,560 944,574 860,650

(El'static Machines)

G 6- 6-47 645,916 2,522,106 948,409 810,042

(El'static Machines)

A 16- 6-47 947,921

(Generatrice el'statique)

G 16-

Chrysler.

Reeperette /

Fuel Cell.

They're tryin to bond Hydrogen to Borax for reactivity and safety reasons.

Right now I am not real fond of hydrogen fuel cells cause they, in truth, do not deliver enough power...so the car has to be much lighter, which means the vehicle is more frail - which in turn means a potentive explosion in a wreck, a big one.

I really think the safety of cars has actually gone DOWN, the lighter they get....a 1977 Lincoln Town car...you could ram a brick wall and probably walk away, maybe even repair the car...but try that in one of these damn tupperware wonders, and the car is toast, and so are you, airbag notwithstanding, and that's IF the damn thing doesn't break yer neck when it goes off, if you happen to be sitting in anything but perfect posture and under 6' 2" in height.

Sometimes newer is not better.

I think I will wait till they build a fuel cell car that might actually survive a 20mph collision, and as yet (the dirty little secret of many of these prototypes)...none of them do.

-R

Re: New energy/Free Energy

Well,Wayne,I'm partial to windmill energy as far as `low cost,nearly pollution-free energy' is concerned.People who live on hills or on flat land watch amazing amounts of pure energy ruffle the leaves of trees or blow people's hats off,and don't give a thought to the power that slipped by them.Vast battery banks are no longer needed now that inverters have been invented which create a pure sine wave to be mingled with the power companies supply.Don't get me wrong.I don't WANT an electric moped! They are not able to compare with the ease of filling your tank with gasoline yet.But being a somewhat gadget-man myself,Wayne,I always lusted for a 3-bladed ,16 ft.diam.windmill to supply my house current.

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